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16. Freedom

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Celebrate Your Freedom!




Celebrate Your Freedom



If you were to visit the beautiful island of Curaçao, on one of its beaches you would see a striking statuemonument. Two slaves are depicted, a man and a woman chained together. But between them, with hammer uplifted and chisel in place, a third man is seen breaking the chain. It is the moment of freedom from slavery. The chain is being broken! This chapter is about getting freedom from addictive habits that are harmful to your body.



Picture from Curacao


The war is over . . . please come out

In 1944, Lieutenant Hiroo Onoda was a commander in the Japanese army. He was sent to Lubang Island in the Philippines. His orders were to hold the island and in no case was he to surrender or commit suicide. He was told, “Whatever happens, we’ll come back for you.”


His troop was reduced to only four fighters. They survived primarily on a small amount of rice, coconuts, wild fruit, roots, bugs, and wild meat.


In October 1945, Onoda first saw a leaflet, which that read: “The war ended on August 15. Come down from the mountains!” Another leaflet dropped by an aircraft contained a surrender order from General Yamashita of the 14th Army. Onoda scrutinized every word and decided that the leaflet must be an Allied Americanhoax.


In October 1972, his Onoda’sonly remaining companion was killed. Over the years, newspapers were left in the jungle for him, letters from relatives were dropped from airplanes, and loudspeaker messages from relatives blared out over the mountains, but Onoda couldn’t believe that he was free. Finally, his former commander, Major Taniguchi, came from Japan, found him Onodain the mountains, and personally read to him the orders stating that all combat activity was to cease.


After 30 thirtyyears in hiding on Lubang Island, Lieutenant Onoda was free. He returned to Japan, where he was hailed as a hero. Onoda enjoys his new life and lives part of the time in Brazil, where he bought a ranch. For 30 thirtyyears he lived in bare survival conditions, eating bugs, roots, wild animals, and wild fruit, when he could have been home with his loving family.[1]




The good news is that those who have lived chained by habits, bad choices, and addictions can live free, if they only accept their freedom. Their release papers were signed two thousand2,000 years ago.



Doing a 180-degree turn°

Michael Harris developed a marijuana habit while in the U.S. Navy. Upon returning to civilian life, he continued his marijuana habit and added alcohol. Michael loved his wife, Amber, but soon his addiction became his number-one attentioninterest.


As Michael drove them Oon a road trip in the Nevada desert, the couple began to argue about Michael’s use of alcohol and marijuana as Micheal drove. “I’ve been smoking marijuana for years,” he insistedsaid. “It doesn’t impair my judgment at all. In fact, it has the opposite effect. It calms my nerves and helps me relax.” But in the early morning hours, his Ford Escort veered from the freeway and crashed into a ravine. Amber was thrown through the windshield. She lay sprawled on the cold desert sand, unable to move. Finally Michael was able to get help, and an ambulance sped Amber to a Las Vegas emergency room. Days, weeks, and months of treatment followed in Las Vegas and later in California, but it soon became all too apparent that the wrenching impact of the accident had caused Amber to suffer extensive permanentparalysis in her arms, back, and legs. She would never walk again.


Feeling Ddepressed and guilty, Michael turned more and more to drugs and alcohol to mask his emotions. He began injecting cocaine, too. He couldn’t bring himself to see Amber in her pitiable condition and went days without visiting her. When Amber was finally released from the hospital, she returned to her parents’ home in Fiji. The community rallied around her, and hundreds of people started to pray for Michael, asking God to remove the power of addiction that had such a terrible hold over him.[2] At the end of this chapter we will share “the rest of the story.”


The wonders of an addiction-free brain



The most amazing and incredible three-pound masterpiece imaginable is the human brain—your brain.



It is a marvel consisting of over more than 10,000,000,000 (ten billion) nerve cells called neurons and over more than 10,000,000,000,000 (ten trillion) connection points called synapses. Some scientists call it the most complex object in the known universe. (See Mmore details on the brain are included in Getting Started, chapter 6, “Command CenterI..)


God has given us this brain with which to think and to do. The citadel or command center of this marvel is the frontal lobe. This is the choosing area, the deciding place of the brain. Put your hands on your forehead above your eyebrows. This is your sacred place that directs your thoughts and makes moral, ethical decisions. It is the place where we choose between good and bad—and where we can choose between the better and the best.


That is why Satan is continuously trying to blur and confuse this part of the brain. The frontal lobe is the seat of the conscience, of our power of reason and will. It defines your personality and character. Your frontal lobe needs to be well-protected spiritually and physically. It differentiates you from the rest of the animal kingdom. All your decisions, great or small, are filtered through this area. It is the real you. This is the place where your thoughts become actions, your actions become your habits, and your habits become your destiny.




Protect your frontal lobe from harmful things inside and outside in order to keep it in tip-top shape.




Dr. Daniel Amen has examined over more thanthirty thousand SPECT[3] brain images. This kind of image isa map of electrical activity and blood flow to various parts of the brain. He Amenis a world authority in this specialty. In his publications, he describes the healthy, addiction-free brain—active, smooth, and symmetrical. The SPECT brain images graphically portray characteristic abnormalities in brain activity from different kinds of addictive substances and give an idea of brain areas which because of abuse no longer have normal brain electrical activity and ample blood circulation.[4]




How do addictions become so powerful that people choose the addiction over caring for the people they love the most in their lives?



Definition of addiction

Addictions develop when bad habits get worse. Addictions come in many forms, from drug abuse with substances like alcohol and tobacco to behaviors like workaholism, compulsive television watching, or surfing the Internet. One definition of an addicted brain is a “persistent compulsive behavior that is harmful or destructive, characterized by an inability to stop.”[5] Steven Grant of the National Institute on Drug Abusedefines the core of addiction as “continued engagement in self-destructive behavior despite adverse consequences.”[6] When this occurs, major changes are happening in the brain so that even though this behavior is causing destruction, the person keeps doing it.


Trying to fill the emptiness in our lives




Usually the use of drugs leading to addiction is a substitute for something missing in life


Why does the president of the corporation burn the midnight oil at the office? Why does a mother rush around doing the near impossible trying to be a “super-mom?” Why does the alcoholic reach for another drink? Why does the obese person keep eating sweets and packing on pounds? Why does the marijuana user continue to smoke joints? Could there be common basic reasons for many of these behaviors?


Social scientist David Sedlacek suggests that all these are symptoms of men and women who are reaching out trying to find God. Are they trying to fill a void in their lives? Are they actually looking for acceptance or, emotional comfort? Or in some cases have they been rejected repeatedly and are they trying to numb the pain? Some may start out trying to enhance short-term performance, but the end result is sacrificing a sacrifice oflong-term performance. There may be those who are not aware of the harmfulness of drugs such as alcohol, wine, cigarettes, or caffeine.


Vicki Griffin says: “Addictions can take the form of not only drugs but food, gambling, shopping, overwork, sex, television, or any other activity that becomes excessive, destructive, or compulsive.”[7] Other addictive behaviors involve pornography and video games. Real living means “to dispense entirely with everything hurtful, and to use judiciously that which is healthful.”[8]


Ten signs of an addicted brain

Do I recognize any of these signs in myself?

__1. Spending a lot of time on itsomething

__2. Using it more than I intend to

__3. Repeated failure to reduce time with it

__4. Lying, sneaking, hiding regarding it

__5. Inability to enjoy other pleasures

__6. Obsessing on it, planning for and hoarding of it

__7. Depression, anxiety

__8. Work, school, and family deterioration because of it

__9. Giving up useful activities for it

__10.Withdrawal symptoms when I stop using it.[9]


The rut gets deeper

Let’s look at the progression of addiction.


Stage 1.:He The persontries substances or behaviors because of curiosity or social pressure in order to feel good.

Stage 2.: Eventually he theyuses the substance or behavior to avoid feeling bad.





Stage 3.:He Theyorganizes the day around the addiction to the point that he theywill stealand/or,or neglect his children, to satisfy his thephysical-psychological-emotional craving for the substance or behavior.

Stage 4.: One addiction often leads to multiple addictions.






Using addictive drugs floods the limbic brain with the brain hormone dopamine, elevating it up to five or 10 times the normal level. This brings a pleasurable sensation.  However with continued use of the addictive drug, the number of dopamine receptors in the brain are decreased and so the person who is now addicted will take more of the same drug in order to get the same pleasurable feeling.[10]


What happens to the brain with drug abuse? SPECT images of chemical substance abusers typically reveal areas of reduced blood and oxygen flow and decreased electrical activity in their brains. The images of some drug-damaged brains look like sponges. Images of the results of other types of addictions reveal brains with holes in them, especially in the frontal lobe, the seat of the will and conscience,like similar tothis image from the brain of an eighteen-year-old marijuana addict.







Flying Hhigh



How widespread is drug abuse?

According to the 2004 United Nations World Drug Report[1]

  • 15 million users of heroin, morphine and opium;
  • 13 million users of cocaine;
  • 150 million users of marijuana at least once a year.



Which abuses are most common?

  • Alcohol (76%)
  • Marijuana (55%)
  • Cocaine (48%)
  • Opiates (27%)
  • Other drugs (26%).[11]


In 2009 between 2.8% and 4.5% of the world population aged 15-64, corresponding to between 125 and 203 million people, had used marijuana at least once in the past year.[12]Is marijuana use a problem in your country?








Marijuana constricts the arteries going to the brain, which lessens blood flow and diminishes the supply of vital oxygen to the brain


Heavy usage is associated with markedly-decreased brain activity, especially in the frontal and temporal lobes. The brain shrinks in size. Marijuana use by males is also one of the causes of erectile dysfunction. Studies in children born to mothers who used marijuana have shown increased behavioral problems during infancy and preschool years.


Marijuana users are more likely to have problems with decision-making, memory, and the ability to remain attentive. Marijuana affects memory, judgment, perception and coodination. About 40 percent of high school students have tried marijuana according to a survey of 4,000 students from Connecticut US high schools. About one in four boys and one in five girls reported having used marijuana in the past month.[13]





According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcohol causes nearly four percent of deaths worldwide—that is more than AIDS, tuberculosis, or violence.




Alcohol silently disrupts harmonious, balanced brain function. Drinking is on the upswing in Africa and Asia, including South Africa and India. Government policies are weak and ineffectual in curbing alcohol’s heavy toll on society from road accidents, violence, disease, child neglect, and job absenteeism.


Worldwide there are approximately 2.5 million people who die each year from alcohol-related causes. “The harmful use of alcohol is fatal for younger age groups and alcohol is the world’s leading risk factor for death among males aged 15-59.” Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States have the highest rate, where 20 percent of all deaths are due to harmful drinking. World-wide, deaths from alcohol abuse are on the increase.[14]


Alcohol impairs the frontal lobe. It is mind altering, and distorts reality, hinders good judgment, and causes dangerous risk taking. It promotes aggression, anger, hostility, violence, and destructive behaviors affecting personal mental health and relationships in familyies and with friends. Alcohol increases the risk of suicide and contributes to the dysfunction of families and breaking up of marriages.


Binge or heavy drinking, a common problem among college students, causes a variety of problems. Binge drinkers tend to miss classes, get in trouble with authorities, cause property damage, drive after drinking, and engage in unplanned, illicit sex.[15] A study reported in the International Journal of Epidemiology demonstrated that in Uganda, those who use alcohol have twice the risk of testing HIV positive as compared to those who have never drunk alcohol.[16]


The social drinker thinks alcohol is relaxing, fun, and gives confidence. The experience of drinking may seem sweet in the moment, but so quickly turns bitter.


Is alcohol good for your heart? Fifty-four studies examined the health effects of drinking. Only seven of them compared drinkers with long-term abstainers—people who had never consumed alcohol or who stopped drinking years before for reasons unrelated to current health. All seven studies showed no benefit from moderate drinking.[17]An editorial in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine points out, “The beneficial effects of alcohol are small and ill-understood,” and the recommendation to be a light drinker is “not only meaningless but also irresponsible.”[18] The flavonoids and antioxidants that reduce heart problems come from the skin of purple grapes and not from alcohol. Drink delicious grape juice to your health and protect that frontal lobe, rather than drinking alcohol at the risk of brain impairment and other consequences.




The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 1.3 billion people are smokers worldwide and that tobacco causesnearly six million deaths annually and caused a hundred million deaths over the course of the twentieth century.[1]





Similarly, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as “the single most preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States.”[1]




Nicotine use greatly increases the risk of stroke. For example, Ellen, a sixty-three-year-old smoker who was age 63, was that suddenly paralyzed on the right side of her body. She was diagnosed with a left frontal stroke which appeared on the her SPECT image like a hole.[19] A clot in an artery had cut off the blood supply to that part of her brain. [20]


About one-third of high school students in the U.S. smoke at some time. These young people risk damage to their lungs, including increased risk for lung cancer.


Caffeinewill “pick me up” and caffeine will “let me down.”           



Caffeine is the most popular stimulus drink in the world and is the most-widely used dependence-creating substance. It is found in coffee, many soda drinks, and in many pain-killer medicines.



You’re probably thinking, “Come on! Caffeine can’t be that bad,.aAfter all, most people have a cup or two every morning.” Ever go without that morning brew? Feel edgy or find yourself with a headache? When you have to take some chemical in order to feel good, doesn’t that tell you something?


Using caffeine is analogous to taking a second mortgage on your house for the pleasure of having an extra-long vacation or for buying a sailboat. The experience will be great initially. The problem is that once you have had your fun, you have now spent the resources that were intended for future security. You have turned things upside down and risk losing your investment or even bankruptcy. Similarly, our bodies have reserve energy for the future and for emergencies. Caffeine spends part of that future, reserve energy now. Is borrowing from your future vitality and spending it now a good investment?


Like other addictions, use of caffeine establishes a chemical dependency and contributes to under-activity in the brain.[21] Common effects of caffeine include insomnia, anxiety, depression, and mood swings. Studies from Michigan State University in 2006 found that rats born to mothers who drank caffeinated beverages through their pregnancy had abnormal function of their brain cells and abnormal behavior.[22]


At Niagara Falls,33 thirty-threemillion gallons of water rush over the precipice every 30 thirtyseconds. That is how much coffee Americans consume every day. Think of the millions of dollars being spent on a drink which thatharms the body.


Prescription Drug Abuse       




Prescription drug abuse is the US’s “fastest growing drug problem and has been classified as an epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.”[1]





Gambling illustration


Behaviors can also be addictive and destructive. Brain scans of compulsive gamblers show an enlarged and overactive cingulate gyrus, indicating obsessive behavior.[23] The cingulate gyrus is the part of the brain that permits the individual to have flexibility—to go with the flow, to adapt to change. With this disorder, it’s hard to be balanced, it’s hard to forget about things that go wrong. The mind keeps bringing it up over and over again. This condition is also found in road rage and obsessive-compulsive disorders.


Sexual addictions


Sexual addictions


A University of Wisconsin research study traced the effects on 116 men and women who were exposed to Hollywood and pornographic movies over a period of six weeks. The researchers found that at the end of six weeks the subjects were less attracted to their partners and were shutting down emotionally.[24]


Sexual addiction is an obsession. The abuse of sexuality includes rape, enslavement to pornography, and the exploitation of the weaknesses of others to satisfy unhealthy cravings. Sex within marriage leads to greater love, but sexual addictions can shatter a marriage bond and contribute to enslaving men and women with an almost uncontrollable passion. One of the Ten Commandments calls adultery a sin. Pornographic browsing on the Internet has greatly added to this harmful addictive habit.


The social cost of addictions

Use of addictive substances may start out with recreation, socialization, experimentation, or just trying to feel better. Then the substance or behavior that is repeated turns into iron chains that trap the person. Next comes mental and physical pain, deteriorating health, broken relationships, and shattered dreams.



There is a certain irony in a person placating their own pain and quadrupling the pain of their spouse or of the children.




Healing the broken brain








Diagram by Dr. Elden Chalmers[1]




You decide to stop smoking. What happens in the brain? The smoking habit nerve pathway is blockaded by the hormone GABA. Almost automatically you reach for a cigarette, and it is not there. You remind yourself, “I don’t smoke anymore.” The hormone ACh opens up a different but parallel nerve pathway, and you reach for a glass of water instead. The same process happens when we triumph over any negative habit.


The good news is that the brain can change. Healing can take place. Jeffery Schwartz of UCLA School of Medicine states, “Directed, willed mental activity can clearly and systematically alter brain function.”[25]


Recovery depends on the length of the abuse and the toxic properties of particular drugs. It depends on the sensitivity of the user’s brain. In any case, the sooner one stops the abuse, the better chance the brain has to heal. “In many cases the brain can be healed or optimized to produce greater function and subsequently a healthier, happier life,” says Dr. Amen.[26]


Many individuals who were addicted to anxiety and depression have found freedom through therapy, nutrition, pure water, and exercise. They learned to replace distorted, crooked thinking with rational thinking. They learned to tell themselves the truth.[27]



Augustine said, “There is a God-shaped vacuum in every man that only God can fill.”


Jesus came “to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound.”[28]


When the love of God fills my heart and I find freedom, I do not need cheap substitutes. I will value marriage, family relationships, and my health. I accept myself because God has accepted me. I don’t have to prove anything to myself or others. God will help me in my struggles and give me strength and self-control. The bottom line is that God fills my love need and makes addictions unnecessary.


Hope for those fighting addictions

There is hope; there is freedom from addictions. Just because your parents or grandparents were addicts does not mean that you will be one as well. Even if you have been abandoned or rejected by your mother or father, or have a poor self-concept, even though you have been sexually, physically, or emotionally abused, you can choose freedom. God will help you live free.


Alcoholics Anonymous usestwelve steps toward recovery. The first is to recognize the need of a “higher power.” Jesus said, “You shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. . . . If the Son makes you free, you shall be free indeed.”[29]



Addiction is slavery. But the grace and love of God are greater than any habit that may bind us.



 “Where sin abounded, grace abounded much more.”[30] God’s power is greater than the power of addiction. But beyond power from above, the individual desiring recovery needs to have horizontal support—professional help and social support.


Social support with others

A support group provides a context in which pain can be shared and encouragement received from others who have been down the same road. It is a safe place for healing. It is a place where we can be accountable to someone and have another to call on when we need help.



Steps to freedom and recovery

1.   Acknowledge that you are weak and that you cannot win the battle with the enemy by yourself. John 15:5 says, “For without Me you can do nothing.”

2.   Have faith that God’s power is sufficient to give you the victory. Philippians 4:13 says, “I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me.”






Resolve to cut off all the pathways of sin. James 4:7 says: “Resist the devil and he will flee from you.”[1]

4.   With drug addiction, avoid the rituals associated with drug use and the geographical locations or friends that you associate with drug use.




5.   Pray to God for divine intervention.

6.   Pray for strength to be victorious.

7.   Find others who will pray for you.

8.   Get professional help. You can be victorious over every addiction.

9.   Ask to be accepted into a rehabilitation facility for treatment.



Help is available, but the bottom line is that you are the one who will weigh the consequence, and in your frontal lobe you will decide.


Which brain do you want?

Using SPECT imaging, Dr. Daniel Amen describes the effects of crank (a methamphetamine sometimes called speed or meth), alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants and smoking on the brain. The heroin brain “shows massive areas of decreased activity throughout. The cocaine brain shows multiple small holes across the cerebral cortex. The alcoholic brain looks shriveled. The marijuana brain looks as though areas are eaten away.” The healthy brain appears “smooth, symmetrical, and full.”[31]


When a heroin addict happened to be in a wellness seminar with his wife and saw a PowerPoint scan of a heroin brain, he loudly said, “Oh mercy!”He had suddenly paused to think of the effect of his habits on his one and only brain. Indeed our habits are recorded in our brains.The famous psychologist William James said: “Could the young but realize how soon they will become mere walking bundles of habits, they would give more heed to their conduct while in the plastic state. We are spinning our own fates, good or evil, and never to be undone. Every smallest stroke of virtue or of vice leaves its never-so-little scar. The drunken Rip Van Winkle, in Jefferson's play, excuses himself for every fresh dereliction by saying, "I won't count this time!" Well, he may not count it, and a kind Heaven may not count it; but it is being counted none the less. Down among his nerve-cells and fibres the molecules are counting it, registering and storing it up to be used against him when the next temptation comes.”[32]



Which brain do you want? It is your choice!           

Adam and Eve had a choice in the Garden of Eden. We have a choice today. Satan wants to make our brains cloudy and confused. If he is able to influence our choices so that our brains are addicted, the frontal lobe is weak, and we are unable to make strong rational decisions; then he wins the war. God is more powerful than Satan. God can give power to make positive choices. He can help us to have a healthy, clear mind so that we can make healthy choices as we seek His power each day.


Michael and Amber Harris—the rest of the story

Paralyzed from the accident, Amber returned alone to Fiji, practically abandoned by Michael, who plunged deeper and deeper into heroine and other addictions to mask his pain.In Fiji, the church began praying night and day for Michael’s healing. Michael was impressed to read the Bible. Yes, there was the promise, “I can do all things [even give up drugs and alcohol] through Christ who strengthens me.”[33] He read a personalized version of Romans 8:35, 37: “Who shall separate me from the love of Christ? Not even disaster, divorce, death, demons, delusions, drugs, or dependencies [the seven deadly D’s]. For in all these circumstances, we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us.”


Michael and Amber eventually reconciled. God had a plan for Michael. Now Michael is drug free and he celebrates his freedom. They invite others to also be free. Today they are involved in an exciting music ministry that is reaching thousands. Michael gives concerts, and Amber is his agent. The secret of freedom for Michael is the same secret that can make the difference in our lives.


Michael Harris was an addict, but with God’s help he was set free and became a WINNER over addictive drugs. If you believe that an inborn desire of the human heart is to be free, then you can find the freedom that you crave. It is a freedom with no adverse effects, no negative consequences, no bad physiological or harrowing psychological effects. We find it when we experience the love of Christ and accept His healing and freeing power. Only Christ can give you this spiritual high of unconditional love. His healing love won’t wear out, won’t go away, and doesn’t cost anything.


Be Intentional! Pray this prayer of freedom.






I accept that Jesus has the power to set me free, and I accept this freedom now. I choose not to be a slave to any man, any woman, any food or chemical substance. God is my only Master and has power to set me free! Amen.




Then in faith, celebrate your freedom of choice.






1. What impressed you about this chapter on addictions and freedom?

2.         If someone approaches you to use a mind-altering drug, what one-line answer might you give that person?







3.         The Bible indicates that if we obey our human impulses or the enemy of humankind, we become slaves. (Read Romans 6:16.) How is chemical addiction slavery and not freedom?

4.         In the beginning, in the Garden of Eden, God told Adam and Eve not to eat of the “forbidden fruit.” It had pleasurable qualities, but eating it caused death. What choices today compare to the Garden of Eden choice?






5.   What are some appropriate ways to talk to teens about addictive substances and behaviors? What information should be given to them, or is this not necessary?

6.   What encouragement, guidance, and help would you offer to your friends who came to you because their teenage son has an addiction to marijuana?






Celebrate Your Freedom

7.         What Bible promises can we claim in the battle for freedom from addictions?

8.            Where in your community can an alcoholic or drug-addicted person receive help




Personal Reflections

  1. Do I have any persistent compulsive behaviors or addictive habits that are harmful, and if so, which ones would I like to break? What can I do to start breaking the habit of these addictions? How can I gain strength when I am weak? (Read Luke 4:18.)
  2. What steps should I take to make a break from a strong addictive desire?







r   I praise God that I have no harmful substance addictive habits.

r   I choose to stop using harmful, even if socially acceptable, substances.









               I have noticed that I have other addictions such as workaholism, media, pornography or ___________________ and now propose to make changes.






r   In prayer I am asking God to help me break any harmful addictions and claiming Bible promises so that I will have total victory over any addictions.

r   I have total victory over harmful addictions.




If you have no addictions, then CELEBRATE in some way—you are free! To remain this way, ask God to keep a hedge of protection around your life.


Family Activity

Discuss as a family the importance of being a drug-free family. Prepare and learn a one-line statement of what to say to an individual who encourages you to take a substance harmful to your body.



Celebrate Your Freedom





[1]. Adapted from Jennifer Rosenberg, “The War Is Over . . . Please Come Out,”,

[2]. Adapted from Michael Harris and Amber Harris with James Ponder, Set Free: Michael and Amber Harris’s Story of Miraculous Recovery and Forgiveness (Nampa, ID: Pacific Press, 2004).

[3]. Single photon emission computed tomography. A SPECT image is not a physical picture of the anatomy of the brain but a map of electrical activity and blood flow to various parts of the brain.

[4]. Daniel G. Amen, Images of Human Behavior: A Brain SPECT Atlas (Newport Beach, CA: MindWorks Press, 1998).

[5]. Vicki Griffin, Paul Musson, Karen Allen, and Evelyn Kissinger, Living Free: Finding Freedom from Habits That Hurt (Lansing, MI: Lifestyle Matters, 2006), 4.

[6]. Elizabeth Gould, Alison J. Reeves, Michael S. A. Graziano, Charles G. Gross, “Neurogenesis in the Neocortex of Adult Primates,” Science 286 (October 1999): 548–552; Constance Holden, “ ‘Behavioral’ Addictions: Do They Exist?”, November 6, 2001.

[7]. Griffin et al, Living Free, 5–6.

[8]. Ellen G. White, Temperance, p. 138 (Patriarchs and Prophets, p. 562).

[9]. Griffin et al, Living Free, 19.

[10] Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, article by David Hirschman, “Your Brain on Drugs: Dopamine and Addiction,” September 13, 2010. Retrieved 03-23-2012.

[11]. “The DASIS Report, Polydrug Admissions: 2002,” Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, US Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2005.

[12] . World Drug Report 2011 “The cannibis market.”

[13] . Tara Parker-Pope, “Marijuana Use in High School,” The New York Times, March 23, 2012., Health Section.

[14]. Jim Gogek and Diana Hopkins, eds., Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2011), x, xi, 20.

[15]. Diane E. Papalia, Sally Olds, and Ruth Feldman, Human Development, 8th ed. (Boston: McGraw Hill, 2001), 423, 493.

[16]. S. M. Mbulaiteye, A. Ruberantwari,  J. S. Nakiyingi, L. M. Carpenter, A. Kamali, and J. A. G. Whitworth, “Alcohol and HIV: A Study Among Sexually Active Adults in Rural Southwest Uganda,” International Journal of Epidemiology 29, no. 5 (2000): 911–915.

[17]. Bonz Otsuke,”International Study Questions Health Benefits of Moderate Drinking,”  University California San Francisco, March 30, 2006. Retrieved 03-23-2012.

[18]. Sara Abdulla, “Is Alcohol Really Good for You?” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 90, no. 12 (December, 1997): 651.

[19]. Daniel G. Amen, MD, Change Your Brain, Change Your Life: The Breakthrough Program for Conquering Anxiety, Depression, Obsessiveness, Anger, and Impulsiveness, (New York: Three Rivers Press, 1998), 21, 22.

[20]. If a stroke attack is treated within three hours, the ill effects may be minimized and the patient may regain part or all of lost body functions.

[21]. Papalia, Olds, and Feldman, Human Development, 424.

[22]. Christen Brownlee, “Addiction: Nicotine During Rat Youth Primes Brain for Harder Drugs,” Science News 170, no. 19 (November 4, 2006): 302. doi:10.1002/scin.5591701916.

[23] Amen, Images of Human Behavior, 83. See also Amen, Change Your Brain, Change Your Life, 162.

[24]. Neil Nedley, “Making and Staying with Positive Lifestyle Choices,” presentation, February 17, 2011, Andrews University.

[25]. Jeffrey Schwartz, The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force  (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2002), 17, 18.

[26]. Amen, Images of Human Behavior, 105.

[27]. These are underlying principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and of Neil Nedley’s Depression and Anxiety Recovery Program.

[28]. Isaiah 61:1.

[29]. John 8:32, 36.

[30]. Romans 5:20.

[31]. Amen, Change Your Brain, Change Your Life, 242–243.

[32] . William James, Talks to Teachers, chapter 8, “The Laws of Habit.”

[33]. Philippians 4:13.



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